Formative Assessment – Dylan Wiliam

Seven strategies (proposed by Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis (2004))
1. Provide students with a clear and understandable vision of the learning target.
2. Use examples and models of strong and weak work.
3. Offerregulardescriptive feedback.
4. Teach students to self-assess and set goals.
5.Design lessons to focus on one learning target or aspect of quality at a time.
6. Teach students focused revision.
7. Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track of and share their learning.

5 Key strategies, a model:

Most cost effective strategies for improving learning:
* feedback
* peer tutoring
* meta-cognition and self-evaluation

Teachers need pedagogical content knowledge and subject-specific knowledge for teaching. Includes knowing what kinds of difficulties students are likely to encounter and kinds of questions that are most likely to elicit relevant evidence.

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Using data

Dylan Wiliam – decision driven data collection

– data driven decision making

I can see the utility of both of these. Use PAT-M, NAPLAN data to decide on key aspects to focus on for cohorts, year levels, individuals, and then decide what formative assessment processes need to be set up during instruction. Use this formative assessment to inform and adapt instruction.

Guttman Chart used to identify Zones of Proximal Development. Needs to be explored more.

Dylan Wiliam Teacher practice implied in STEM course, involved students being directed to/or self selecting various activities depending on their level – practice/ recall, apply, analyse, evaluate/ create.

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Ten Principles of Assessment – D Wiliam


  1. is part of effective learning
  2. focuses on how students learn
  3. is central to classroom practice
  4. is a key professional skill
  5. is sensitive and constrictive
  6. fosters motivation
  7. promotes understanding of goals and criteria
  8. helps learners know how to improve
  9. develops the capacity for self assessment
  10. recognises all educational achievement

Assessment Reform Group 2002


What would you like to add/ take away/ change from this list?

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