Seven strategies (proposed by Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis (2004))
1. Provide students with a clear and understandable vision of the learning target.
2. Use examples and models of strong and weak work.
3. Offerregulardescriptive feedback.
4. Teach students to self-assess and set goals.
5.Design lessons to focus on one learning target or aspect of quality at a time.
6. Teach students focused revision.
7. Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track of and share their learning.
Most cost effective strategies for improving learning:
* peer tutoring
* meta-cognition and self-evaluation
Teachers need pedagogical content knowledge and subject-specific knowledge for teaching. Includes knowing what kinds of difficulties students are likely to encounter and kinds of questions that are most likely to elicit relevant evidence.