Archive of ‘Leadership’ category

Implementation – Chapter 7

Quality of teaching influenced by:

  • class size
  • the quality of the curriculum
  • the resources available
  • the time available to prepare instruction
  • Support teachers receive from colleagues

Most important factor – qualities that the individual teacher brings to the classroom.

Teachers need to improve because they can be even better, and when they do their jobs better, their students live on get, are healthier, and contribute more to society.

Observation criteria:

  • Clear, valuable learning intentions for lesson
  • Success criteria understood by students
  • Students chosen at random
  • Questions that make students think
  • Students, not the teacher, dominate discussions
  •  At least 80 percent of students involved in answering questions
  • All-student response system used
  • Teacher waits three seconds after question
  • Students support each other’s learning
  • Teacher gives oral formative feedback
  • Evidence of comments that advance learning
  • Teacher finds out what students learned
  • Teaching adjusted after data collection

Exempalry practice

Good practice

Seen, but weak


Used inappropriately


Scaleability requires:



shift in reform ownership

My Teaching Partner – coaching system focused on 3 aspects of teaching:

emotional support for students 9positive relationships, teacher sensitivity, and regard for adolescent perspectives)

classroom organisation (behaviour management, maximising learning time, and effective instructional formats)

instructional support (content understanding, analysis and problem solving, and quality of feedback)



Focus on video  – tacit knowledge visible

Video more useful than rubrics to explore high-quality performance. Rubrics could be a valuable starting point, but won’t necessarily improve practice.

Professional development must be job embedded, practice focused, and continued over a substantial period of time.


Research shows that expertise in teaching is similar to expertise in other areas.” This in turn suggests that the vast majority of teachers could be as good as the very best if their leaders provide the right learning environment for those they lead – creating a culture in which all teachers improve so that all students succeed.”

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Changing Teacher Habits- In chapter 6

Analogy of the riderand the elephant – along a path.

Direct the rider

Find the bright spots – volunteers rather than conscripts, strength based practices

Script the critical moves – highly structured meetings (1. Intro and learning intentions for the meeting 5 min, 2. Warm-up activity 5min, 3. Feedback session 25-50 min, 4. New learning about formative assessment 20-40 min, 5. Personal action planning 15 min, 6. Review of the meeting 5 min

Point to the destination – All students proficient

Motivate the elephant

Find the feeling (emotional impact) – Moral imperative

Shrink the change (break down into manageable chunks) Small steps

Grow your people – All teachers can improve

Shape the path

Tweak the environment (default positions) Create time for teacher learning

Build habits (plan action triggers) Create routines and structures

Rally the herd (create a group ethos around practice) Make new mistakes



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Leadership for Teacher Learning – D Wiliam

5 principles of teacher learning have appeared to be especially important:



small steps



(Wiliam, 2007)


For leaders, four aspects to the creation of supportive accountability:

1. Creating expectations for continually improving practice

2. Keeping the focus on the things that make a difference to students

3. Providing the time, space, dispensation, and support for innovation

4. Supporting risk-taking

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Strategies and Tools for Implementing Danielson, Marzano and other Frameworks. – Thinkcerca

Danielson: Domain 1

Domain 1: Planning and Preparation Outcome-Driven Instructional Leadership Team Practices
1a. Demonstrating Knowledge of content and pedagogy Providing time for teachers to understand research base of lesson design
1b. Demonstrating Knowledge of students Providing regular collaboration opportunities around automated assessment data and student work with colleagues who share cohort of students and with instructional leaders who are accountable for outcomes
1c Setting Instructional Outcomes Providing alignment documents and pacing guides aligned to other instructional resources, developed in collaboration.
1d Demonstrating knowledge of resources Providing time for macro planning to ensure successful launch, meaningful integration, and continuous improvement of teacher knowledge, skill and practice.
1e Designing Coherent Instruction Providing time for macro-planning to ensure successful curriculum development, meaningful integration of resources, and continuous improvement of teacher knowledge, skill and practice.
1f Designing Student Assessments Providing time to collaborate around larger projects and assessments to benchmark progress.

Marzano Design Questions

Domain 1:

  1. What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress and celebrate success?
  2. What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge?
  3. What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?
  4. What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?
  5. What will I do to engage students?
  6. What will I do to establisher maintain classroom rules and procedures?
  7. What will I do to recognise and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and routines?
  8. What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students?
  9. What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students?
  10. What will I do to develop effective lessons organised into a cohesive unit?

Classroom: Differentiation and Coverage

What are we as instructional leaders doing to create the conditions for success for learning?

People As a team, have you determined the underlying skills and concepts and the smaller chunks?
Processes Have you designed the appropriate active learning strategy to match the learning task?
Places Have you created spaces for active learning, self-pacing, additional help?
Products Do you have products that support this work?
Time As a team, are we providing enough time to go deep and differentiate appropriately?


Danielson: Domain 2

Domain 2: Classroom Environment
2a. Creating and Environment of Respect and Rapport
2b Establishing a Culture for Learning
2c Managing Classroom Procedures
2d Managing Student Behaviour
2e Organising Physical Space

Empathy Zones – opportunities for students to work in different spaces depending on their emotional state

“I understand”

“I think I understand”

“I don’t understand”

“I feel great and social”

“I feel ok but not great”

“I want to be left alone”


Planning: Operationalising Teams for Learning

What are we as instructional leaders doing to create the conditions for success for learning?

People As a team, how are you determining what students should know and be able to do and helping each other to create it?
Processes As a team, have you determined a good way to help students capture data and establish a good routine for using it?
Places As a team, are you celebrating success?
Products As a team, do you have a common resource that can support this work?
Time As a team, are you allocating the necessary time to the looking at student work samples as one of the keys to monitoring progress?


Danielson Domain 3

Domain 3: Instruction
3a Communicating with Students
3b Using questioning and discussion techniques
3c Engaging students in Learning
3d Using Assessment in Instruction
3e Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness

Danielson Domain 4

Domain 4: Professional Responsibility
4a Reflecting on Teaching
4b Maintaining Accurate Records
4c Communicating with families
4d Participating in the Professional Community
4e Growing and Developing Professionally
4f Showing Professionalism


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Putting Faces on the Data – Sharratt, Fullan

The 14 Parameters

  1. Shared beliefs and Understandings
    1. Each student can achieve high standards, given the right time and the right support.
    2. Each teacher can teach to high standards, given the right assistance.
    3. High expectations and early and ongoing intervention are essential.
    4. Teachers and administrators need to be able to articulate what they do and why they teach the way they do.
  2. Embedded Literacy/ Instructional Coaches
  3. Daily, Sustained Focus on Literacy Instruction
  4. Principal Leadership
  5. Early and Ongoing Intervention
  6. Case Management Approach: a) Data Walls, b) Case by Case Meetings
  7. Professional Learning at School Staff Meetings
  8. In-school Grade/ Subject Meetings
  9. Centralised Resources
  10. Commitment of District and School Budgets for Literacy Learning and Resources
  11. Action Research/ Collaborative Inquiry
  12. Parental and Community Involvement
  13. Cross-Curricular Connections
  14. Shared Responsibility and Accountablility
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Assessment for Teaching – Patrick Griffin

Professional Learning Team (PLT) meeting and cycle:
1. What is the student ready to learn, and what is the evidence for this in terms of what the student can do, say, make or write?
2. What are the possible evidence-based intervention and the associated scaffolding processes for each?
3. What is the preferred intervention, and how will it be resourced and implemented?
4. What is the expected impact on learning, and how will this be evaluated?
5. What was the outcome, and how can this be interpreted?

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