Archive of ‘Leadership’ category

Strategies and Tools for Implementing Danielson, Marzano and other Frameworks. – Thinkcerca

Danielson: Domain 1

Domain 1: Planning and Preparation Outcome-Driven Instructional Leadership Team Practices
1a. Demonstrating Knowledge of content and pedagogy Providing time for teachers to understand research base of lesson design
1b. Demonstrating Knowledge of students Providing regular collaboration opportunities around automated assessment data and student work with colleagues who share cohort of students and with instructional leaders who are accountable for outcomes
1c Setting Instructional Outcomes Providing alignment documents and pacing guides aligned to other instructional resources, developed in collaboration.
1d Demonstrating knowledge of resources Providing time for macro planning to ensure successful launch, meaningful integration, and continuous improvement of teacher knowledge, skill and practice.
1e Designing Coherent Instruction Providing time for macro-planning to ensure successful curriculum development, meaningful integration of resources, and continuous improvement of teacher knowledge, skill and practice.
1f Designing Student Assessments Providing time to collaborate around larger projects and assessments to benchmark progress.

Marzano Design Questions

Domain 1:

  1. What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress and celebrate success?
  2. What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge?
  3. What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?
  4. What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?
  5. What will I do to engage students?
  6. What will I do to establisher maintain classroom rules and procedures?
  7. What will I do to recognise and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and routines?
  8. What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students?
  9. What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students?
  10. What will I do to develop effective lessons organised into a cohesive unit?

Classroom: Differentiation and Coverage

What are we as instructional leaders doing to create the conditions for success for learning?

People As a team, have you determined the underlying skills and concepts and the smaller chunks?
Processes Have you designed the appropriate active learning strategy to match the learning task?
Places Have you created spaces for active learning, self-pacing, additional help?
Products Do you have products that support this work?
Time As a team, are we providing enough time to go deep and differentiate appropriately?


Danielson: Domain 2

Domain 2: Classroom Environment
2a. Creating and Environment of Respect and Rapport
2b Establishing a Culture for Learning
2c Managing Classroom Procedures
2d Managing Student Behaviour
2e Organising Physical Space

Empathy Zones – opportunities for students to work in different spaces depending on their emotional state

“I understand”

“I think I understand”

“I don’t understand”

“I feel great and social”

“I feel ok but not great”

“I want to be left alone”


Planning: Operationalising Teams for Learning

What are we as instructional leaders doing to create the conditions for success for learning?

People As a team, how are you determining what students should know and be able to do and helping each other to create it?
Processes As a team, have you determined a good way to help students capture data and establish a good routine for using it?
Places As a team, are you celebrating success?
Products As a team, do you have a common resource that can support this work?
Time As a team, are you allocating the necessary time to the looking at student work samples as one of the keys to monitoring progress?


Danielson Domain 3

Domain 3: Instruction
3a Communicating with Students
3b Using questioning and discussion techniques
3c Engaging students in Learning
3d Using Assessment in Instruction
3e Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness

Danielson Domain 4

Domain 4: Professional Responsibility
4a Reflecting on Teaching
4b Maintaining Accurate Records
4c Communicating with families
4d Participating in the Professional Community
4e Growing and Developing Professionally
4f Showing Professionalism


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Putting Faces on the Data – Sharratt, Fullan

The 14 Parameters

  1. Shared beliefs and Understandings
    1. Each student can achieve high standards, given the right time and the right support.
    2. Each teacher can teach to high standards, given the right assistance.
    3. High expectations and early and ongoing intervention are essential.
    4. Teachers and administrators need to be able to articulate what they do and why they teach the way they do.
  2. Embedded Literacy/ Instructional Coaches
  3. Daily, Sustained Focus on Literacy Instruction
  4. Principal Leadership
  5. Early and Ongoing Intervention
  6. Case Management Approach: a) Data Walls, b) Case by Case Meetings
  7. Professional Learning at School Staff Meetings
  8. In-school Grade/ Subject Meetings
  9. Centralised Resources
  10. Commitment of District and School Budgets for Literacy Learning and Resources
  11. Action Research/ Collaborative Inquiry
  12. Parental and Community Involvement
  13. Cross-Curricular Connections
  14. Shared Responsibility and Accountablility
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Assessment for Teaching – Patrick Griffin

Professional Learning Team (PLT) meeting and cycle:
1. What is the student ready to learn, and what is the evidence for this in terms of what the student can do, say, make or write?
2. What are the possible evidence-based intervention and the associated scaffolding processes for each?
3. What is the preferred intervention, and how will it be resourced and implemented?
4. What is the expected impact on learning, and how will this be evaluated?
5. What was the outcome, and how can this be interpreted?

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Rich District, Poor District: Common Sense Practices to Maximise Resources and Improve Student Outcomes – Howie Knoff

Common Sense Practice #1 (Leadership)
7 C’s of success:
formal and informal processes that facilitate:
among school staff and district staff

Committees – reflect the research-based components of effective schools and schooling

The School Leadership Team (all committee co-chairs are members)
The Curriculum and Instruction Committee
The School Climate/ School Discipline Committee
The Professional Development/ Teacher Mentoring and Support Committee
The Family and Community Outreach Committee
The Student Assistance/ Multi-tiered/ Early Intervention Committee (made up of the best academic/ behavioural assessment/ intervention specialists in or available to the school)

All professionals regardless of their department or administrative assignment, are organised in cross-collaborative teams that focus on the following outcomes:

  • Students’ academic learning, mastery, and application
  • Students’ social, emotional and behavioural self-management and interpersonal success
  • Teachers’ effective instruction relative to student academics and self-management outcomes
  • Meaningful professional development and staff support to facilitate effective instruction and multi-tiered intervention resulting in successful student outcomes
  • Community and family outreach to maximise their support, collaboration, and involvement in educational processes/ activities at the district, school, and student levels

Common Sense #2 (Instruction)

Differentiated Instruction will not work when there are too many different skill groups in a classroom, or when teachers do not know the functional skills levels of their students.

Organisational suggestion for setting up classes – not too much of a range in abilities (skills based learning clusters)??? Possible?

Knowing the Zone of Proximal Development level of all students

* Use PAT-R, PAT-M, Running Records, etc.

* Data management system to pass on information from teacher to teacher essential.

Refer to:

Common Sense Practice #3 (Assessment):
Every year level (or course) needs developmentally-appropriate curricular maps, that identify the knowledge, content and skills needed by students, along with the criteria for student mastery: and for every teacher to have the skills, materials, and opportunity needed to effectively differentiate and teach, assess, and monitor students’ learning and mastery.

Yes!! I feel that the most success we have had this year in terms of Professional Development has been developing a clear understanding of the skills and understandings needed by students in terms of reading comprehension. Analysing the PAT-R descriptive continuum helped to understand what students needed to be taught. Using this assessment tool helped teachers to identify the Zone of Proximal Development of each student from Year 2-7. From here clear goals were established for student learning, and instructional opportunities were planned to scaffold students’ learning.

Question: How closely are the PAT-R tests aligned with the Australian Curriculum?
This process need to be done in relation to the Australian Curriculum year level expectations.

Common Sense Practice #4 (Services and Support):
Share Resources
SWOT Analysis
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

Interdependent Audits:

  • Strategic Planning, Organisational Stability and Data-driven Decision Making Audits
  • Academic and Health/ Mental Health/ Wellness Curriculum, Curricular Alignment, and Curriculum Selection Audits
  • Technological Hardware and Software Curriculum, Instruction, and Intervention Support Audits
  • Professional Development, Supervision and Staff Evaluation Audits

Completing and sharing these audits allows everyone to know the resources available (and not available) and how they can be utilised.

Resources must be used to support needs of students. Communicating what resources are available, and sharing these across the school are important.



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Effective Supervision by R Marzano

5 conditions that must be met to systematically develop teacher expertise: 1) a well-articulated knowledge base for teaching, 2) focused feedback and practice, 3) opportunities to observe and discuss expertise, 4) clear criteria and a plan for success, and 5) recognition of expertise. These will in turn translate into enhanced student achievement.

A Well Articulated Knowledge Base for Teaching
Domain 1: classroom strategies and behaviours
Domain 2: planning and preparing
Domain 3: reflecting on teaching
Domain 4: collegiality and professionalism


Focused Feedback and Practice
For feedback to be instrumental in developing teacher expertise, it must focus on specific classroom strategies and behaviours during a set interval of time.

Opportunities to Observe and Discuss Expertise
Opportunities to observe and discuss effective teaching are an important part of developing expertise among classroom teachers. If teachers do not have opportunities to observe and interact with other teachers, their method of generating new knowledge about teaching is limited to personal trial and error.

Clear Criteria and a Plan for Success
The ultimate criterion for successful teaching must be student learning.

Recognition of Expertise

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Making Thinking Visible

When we place the learner at the heart of everything we do, our focus as teachers shifts in a most fundamental way.
* from the delivery of information to fostering students’ engagement with ideas
Instead of covering the curriculum and judging our success by how much content we get through, we must learn to identify the key ideas and concepts with which we want our students to engage, struggle, question, explore, and ultimately build understanding. Our goal must be to make the big ideas of the curriculum accessible and engaging while honoring their complexity, beauty, and power in the process. When there is something important and worthwhile to think about and a reason to think deeply, our students experience the kind of learning that has a lasting impact and powerful influence not only in the short term but also in the long haul. They not only learn; they learn how to learn.

We have two chief goals:
* creating opportunities for thinking
* making students’ thinking visible

David Perkins “learning is a consequence of thinking. Retention, understanding, and the active use of knowledge can be brought about only by learning experiences in which learners think about and think with what they are learning…Far from thinking coming after knowledge, knowledge comes on the coat tails of thinking. As we think about and with the content that we are learning, we truly learn it.”
When we reduce the amount of thinking eg ask of our students, we reduce the amount of learning as well. We need to remember that thinking may still be invisible to us. To make sure thinking isn’t left to chance and to provide us with the information we needin order to respond to students’ learning needs, we must also make their thinking invisible.

Enabling students to show thinking gives the teacher insight into understanding and misconceptions.

Good “essential questions”:
What’s the story?
What’s the other story?
How do you know the story?
Why know/ tell the story?
Where’s the power in the story?

Students’ questions all the more important: “I judge my students not by the answers they give, but by the questions they ask” Paul Cripps Wyoming

“What makes you say that?” – a non-threatening way of eliciting thinking process.

We make students’ thinking visible through our questioning, listening and documenting so that we can build on and extend that thinking on the way to deeper and richer understanding.

The section ‘As patterns of behaviour’ gets to the crux of an idea that has been milling around in my head recently. The notion that it is the routine, daily things that teachers set up in their classroom that create habits and effect learning powerfully. That is why I have been developing a Daily Planning tool, which tries to highlight and synthesise the key aspects that we are focusing on as a school, and place them front and centre in all of our teachers’ minds. I realise though that the aspects I have highlighted so far are the ‘what’ of the curriculum, and the routines set out in this book address the ‘how’. I will need to come back to explore this section in more detail.

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Differentiation and Explicit Teaching

This one looks great for providing clear explanation of explicit teaching and differentiation in the areas of Spelling, Reading, and Punctuation and Grammar. We have identified the need at our school for more focus on explicit teaching in terms of sentence structure, and differentiation is continually an important factor in meeting the wide ranging needs of individuals and cohorts within any class.

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